The increase in population there is a great necessity to increase crop productivity of staple crops but the productivity and qualıty is greatly affected by various environmental stress factors. Therefore, there is a great necessity of inter-disciplinary study to address this issue. Cereal grains are one of the main sources of human caloric intake as human food. This book focuses and reviews on the main types of cereals, their role in food security, and highlights of new developments and techniques of breeding programme that may imrove the production in the future. changing global climate is affecting the crop productivity and quality. So, understanding into the physiology of grain development can help to improve the grain production and quality level under the influence of various environment .