This book was published for the first time and prepared in chapters. The book consists of seven chapters explaining new and current issues. It is a professional book in the field of physics with important methods and applications. This study contains very valuable studies by Assist. Prof. Dr. Selcuk Topal (Molecules in the Universe; The Molecular Gas, Dust and Stellar Population Across the Disk of Spiral Galaxies); Dr. Cristian Stefan Dumitriu (On the Copper-Based Materials Corrosion); Assist. Prof. Dr. Murat Kıransan (Principles and Environmental Applications of Sonochemistry and Sonochemically Assisted Advanced Oxidation Processes); Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tuba Ozdemir Oge, Asst. Prof. Dr. Firdevs Banu Ozdemir, Res. Asst. Dr. Mecit Oge and Inst. Okan Cicek (Fundamentals of Ophtalmic Lens Decentration); H. Eslen Guler, Rabia Caglayan, Prof. Dr. Mehmet Kabak and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yesim Mogulkac (Electronic Structure Properties of BSb/Ga2SSe Heterostructure Under Electric Field Effect); Assist. Prof. Dr. Neslihan Kaya Kınayturk, Prof. Dr. Belgin Tunalı, Assist. Prof. Dr. Deniz Turkoz Altug (Investigation of the Effect of Lambda Cyhalothrin on Some Eggshells as Waste Materials Using AFM Imaging and UV-VIS Spectroscopy).