Agriculture goes through a paradigm change that profoundly questions the structural dynamics and cultural dynamics of the current unequal and unsustainable food systems, as well as the producers and consumers of food. Following the intensification and industrialization of agricultural and food systems, significant environmental and social issues have arisen, including the loss of biodiversity, pesticide contamination of soils, water, and food, eutrophication of water bodies, the heavy use of antibiotics in the livestock industry, the decline in farm numbers and farmer incomes, and severe issues for the health of people and agroecosystems as well as for rural communities. Also controversial topics in agriculture are numerous. It’s crucial to share viewpoints on controversial agricultural issues in formal contexts and to train future scientists to tackle complex situations like these. Agrochemical use, technology transfer imbalance related to agricultural technological innovations like digitalization, information and communication technologies (ICT), and precision farming, animal welfare in agriculture, tools used in animal agriculture such as hormones and antibiotics, social justice, and others are some of the contentious issues in agriculture. However, in view of the rapid advancement of technology, it is crucial to reach a consensus and clarify several fundamental features of agriculture.