The 21st century extreme situations represent major collective upheavals for people and societies. These “black swan” situations refer to low-probability and high-impact events that defy any expert prediction and tend to shape history. Humanity has encountered various natural and man- made disasters that despite their apparent heterogeneity share many common characteristics, such as novelty, unpredictability, complexity and uncertainty. Since the dawn of time, human beings have been facing several devastating pandemics, among which are the Black Death pandemic during the Late Middle Ages, several Great Plagues pandemics or the Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918 causing unprecedent mortality across the world. The pandemic circumstances challenge directly the resilience of human beings and societies in the midst of an emergency oscillating between life and demise.