Cotton is one of the most important strategic fiber crops in the global textile industry and plays a significant role in the industrial and agricultural economy of the country. Turkey has an important place in terms of cotton yield and production in the world. Cotton is not only providing raw material for textile industry, but also its by-products have economic development of Turkey. However, global warming which is effective throughout the world and consequently high temperature and drought stress leads to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Climate change probably will affect cotton production in world especially through changes in temperature, rainfall and carbon dioxide concentration.