Walnut is one of the most important fruits which has been defined as a “Super food” in recent years that appreciated by many for its taste and aroma and evaluated in the Nuts category. This food is consumed with love, is a special fruit with a nutritional and consumer-friendly dimension that provides physiological benefits for human health. Consumers are willing to pay good money for these features that help ensure strong growth in worldwide production and contribute to the country’s economy. Walnut production in both nuts and other products has increased significantly in the last two decades in traditionally leading walnut producing countries such as China, USA, Chile, Turkey and Ukraine. Also during this time, China and the USA are the largest producers in the world, and production in China is also increasing dramatically with the rise of the middle class in the world’s most populous country. The relatively long juvenile period and many labor-intensive processes take place in walnut cultivation, from pollen collection, hand pollination and fruit protection from birds/insects/diseases to manual harvesting. However, as a result of rapid developments in the field of molecular genetics in recent years, it shows great promise for wider improved diversity characteristics and more efficient studies in walnut breeding.