Agriculture played a major role in humanity’s transition to collective life. The hunter-gatherer communities that existed during the Stone Age gave way to people engaged in agriculture, giving rise to societies and states. Until the Industrial Revolution, agriculture was the main source of income for the majority of humanity. However, today there are visible developments in agriculture and the effects of technology. Significant changes took place in agriculture, especially during the 20th century. According to the Haber-Bosch process, the first artificial fertilizers were obtained using dung mixed with ammonium nitrate. Thanks to mechanization, which reduced the labor force in agriculture, a decrease in the number of workers in agriculture was observed. In response to the increase in production, unemployment increased. This book was created with the contributions of many researchers who are experts in their fields and aims to present the latest scientific developments on field crops to readers. We hope that this compilation will contribute to the agricultural sector and be a valuable resource for anyone interested in studies on field crops.